MAKO SHARK (ISURUS OXYRINCHUS)

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Mako shark is a hydrodynamic shark (it means that it has a conical, pointed snout that breaks tides while it swims), similar to the shape of a torpedo. Its figure, its powerful muscular mass, its caudal fin, and even its ability to stabilize its body temperature, are factors that allow the Mako shark to swim at high speed in the ocean; this shark can reach speeds above 110km/h which makes it the fastest animal in the ocean. 

It is possible that because of its ability to stabilize its own temperature (endothermic), this shark can live in temperate environments and in tropical waters. The Mako shark diet is mainly comprised of tuna and weevils, although it also feeds on marine mammals, turtles, cephalopods (octopus, squid, among others) and even other sharks. 

It has a reproduction viviparous aplacental, reproductive mode in which the embryos develop within the mother and feed from unfertilized eggs (oophagy), and when they are fully developed are expelled. 

It is also classified as “Vulnerable” by the International Union for the Preservation of nature, implying that it is likely to become an endangered species. 

Picture: Eduardo López Negrete

Environmental education for the benefit of LIVINGSTON

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The environmental education project with emphasis on the reuse, recycling and reduction of the use of plastic began in its region of execution in Livingston, Izabal. The project aims to create awareness and educate middle-level youth about the problematic, progressive damage and impact of single-use plastic products for our planet.

The project was initiated where it aims to create a comprehensive mechanism of information on all aspects revolving around plastic, from its origin and manufacture, damages and benefits of plastic for humanity to practical ways to reuse , recycle and unused plastic for the protection of Livingston ecosystems.

This first workshop was executed during the last week of January, this workshop, in addition to serving as an introductory presentation also served to explain fundamental and basic aspects about plastics. Aspects such as: manufacture, provenance, oil refining process, plastics properties, plastic divisions and other related topics were treated.

The success of the first tour was confirmed with the interest shown by the students on how to approach the topic using specific points; fundamental points were addressed on generalities of the chemical properties of plastics, processes of creation of the most common polymers and division of plastics, also gave a historical review on the first synthetic plastic created in the world In addition to its creator and how this had a historical impact on the world.

The first workshop fulfilled its goal of educating and laying the foundations for further understanding of the latent and constant damage of polymers to humanity, ecosystems and the world in general. Although it is true that the activity was successfully developed, its development was not entirely normal due to the problem facing the community every time it rains in the sector; the electric power stops working when the rains are strong, and because of them the service was irregular during the development of the first workshop so that in none of the activities were used all the tools that were planned, were all workshops were modified in such a way that they could be understandable to young people using the dynamic activities and examples, comments and opinions from the same young people.

The presence of Blue World Foundation was positive and highly accepted by the educational establishments and their students showing their interest in the activities that are to come and that will be developed throughout the school year in the Augusta Blanco institutes Rubio and the national diversified education of Livingston.

We give a special thanks to Rufford Foundation for the support provided so that this project can be carried out.

For a shark, gluttony does not exist.

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A shark can survive for up to a year without feeding! As incredible as it may seem, (considering the large size of some shark species) sharks can survive for up to a year without feeding.

According to shark Pedia data, sharks can vary their eating habits depending on the regions where they live. These incredible aquatic animals have an easy adaptability to precarious situations in which they cannot obtain food during quite prolonged times, that is why some species of sharks eat just quantities of proportional food To your body and then not to eat again for weeks, months or even for a full year. The way they achieve this amazing feat is thanks to their liver. The Sharks-world site (Shark World in Spanish) states that like humans, sharks also have a liver, although the latter use it in a different way. Fish like sharks can store large amounts of oil during quite long times.

The efficient liver of sharks allows them to keep nutrients that facilitates survival in food shortages and is only when the oil in their liver decreases that they activate their instinct to feed; it is important to mention that like gasoline for a car, the liver of the Sharks should not run out of oil for the proper functioning of their organism.

The importance of the liver to the survival of sharks is not the only quality of this organ. Rob Harris indicates that biologically the liver of a surface shark has a total weight of 25 percent of its body weight while deep sharks may have only 5 percent.

Scientifically it has been proven that the more you need a shark to keep moving in order to get the oxygen from the water that passes through its gills, the more space can occupy the liver in the body of the Sharks. It has been confirmed that in many species of shark the liver can occupy about 90 percent of the body cavity of these fish.

The importance of the liver for the buoyancy of sharks is that the oil produced by this organ is lighter than water, allowing them to have a relatively lower weight than the pressure exerted by their body while swimming. This means that while the liver maintains a correct production of oil, the shark could not sink, besides that the difficulty and effort of its movement by swimming is reduced significantly and drastically.

It is amazing how complex and well-adapted shark organisms are to their own environments. If you meditate calmly, it can be concluded that for a shark gluttony is not an option. So when you no longer can and still try to give the last bite to your burger, remember that nature has lessons that are worthy of being emulated.

By Christian Zúñiga

References

Harris Rob Pets on Mom.me [online]. – 25 of 01 of 2018. –
Http://animals.mom.me/oily-liver-shark-work-7894.html.

Sharks-World [online]. – 2017. – 25 of 01 of 2018. –
Http://www.sharks-world.com/shark_anatomy/°.

Spector Dina BUSINESS Insider [online]. – 2014 of 05 of 2014. – 25 of 01 of 2018. – Http://www.businessinsider.com/how-many-days-can-you-survive-without-water-2014-5.

Tiburón Pedia [Online]. – 18 of 01 of 2018. –
http://www.tiburonpedia.com/que-comen-los-tiburones/.

Pilgrim Shark, the liver of this shark can store about 400 liters of oil. * * Image entitled to reuse. Author: PXHERE.COM * *

Shark fin identification Guide in GUATEMALA

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The goal of this shark fin identification Guide is to facilitate training for wildlife inspectors, government agents and fishing services personnel in visual identification of the dorsal fins and Pectoral fins in five shark species that have been included in appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This appendix includes species that are not necessarily endangered, but whose marketing must be controlled in order to avoid incompatible use with their survival. The species included in this guide include the silky Shark (Falciformisic Tiburon), two hammerhead sharks (common hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini and Giant Hammer, Sphyrna) and two species of foxes (thresher shark bigeye, Alopias Superciliosus and Pelagic fox, Alopias pelagicus), which are captured both on the Pacific coast and in the Caribbean of Guatemala.

https://fundacionmundoazul.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Guia-Final-Final.pdf

ART IN BLUE WORLD FOUNDATION

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During the last week of August, Blue World Foundation continued to work with the youth of El Quetzalito. In this activity young people learned practical strategies based on critical thinking to exploit their creativity. 

They learned how to make portraits, and through the interviews they made, they designed a small comic book using script narration techniques, drawing and painting. 

It is in this way, young people of El Quetzalito developed their artistic skills to transmit messages about the care of the environment in a different way. 

Art is fundamental to the development of critical thinking in young people and also gives mechanisms to learn to express their thoughts in a different way and integrate new knowledge as they are inspired to make art. Blue World Foundation believes in it, totally.

HOW MANY SHARK SPECIES HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED?

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Although most people are familiar with 2 or 3 species of shark, such as the “acclaimed actor” the White shark or the hammerhead shark who has more popularity among the little ones being even the main character of one of the coloring books of Blue World Foundation (“Martin and his Friends” published in 2017). The number of sharks discovered so far could come as a surprise to all.

According to the national Department of Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the Department of Commerce of the United States (NOAA), that small portion of the marine world that man has been able to know turns out to be 5% of the oceanic bodies of the world. A relatively small percentage if it is considered that more than 75% of the world is made up of water and the rest by land.

Of the 400 species discovered today there are sharks as small as the dwarf lantern shark that has a length of only 20 cm or as large as the whale shark that can be measured 12 meters long (approximately the length of a bus School).

Although sharks are believed to be strictly carnivorous and therefore dangerous to humans, the British daily Independent (Independent in Spanish) has recently been confirmed by Josh Gabbatiss’s note that a study led by Samantha Leigh The University of California has determined that there are sharks that feed mostly on herbs, from meat from other fish, crustaceans and so forth. Leigh’s studies confirmed that the shovel-head shark (scientific name Sphyrna Shark) has a consistent diet rich in 90% of seaweed, which is enough to reduce the stereotypes that revolve around sharks and their alleged endangerment. This study shows that because of the variety of sharks, these not only maintain the balance of the aquatic food chain, but also play a key role in maintaining the balance of the habitats and ecosystems in which they are present.

Sharks are interesting animals that deserve vital attention because of their magnificence and their high value to maintain the health of the oceans; as a species man has still much to discover and it is thanks to the sharks that the oceans are balanced so that the man continues to unleash his exploratory instinct and, well, if there is no field and sharks to continue discovering!

By Christian Zúñiga

References

Gabbatiss Josh Independent [online]. – 10 of 01 of 2018. – 18 of 01 of 2018. – http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/vegetarian-shark-seagrass-digest-bonnethead-scientists-university-california-a8152201.html#gallery.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U. S Department of Commerce National Ocean Service [online]. – 18 of 01 of 2018. https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/exploration.html. World Wild Life WWF [online]. – 18 of 01 of 2018. – Https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/shark.

NEW YEAR, NEW PROJECT!

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The week of 16 to 19 January members of Blue World Foundation presented the project entitled “Participatory Solid Waste Management Initiative” with the Community Development Council of El Quetzalito (COCODE). This was the beginning of this project, which focuses on countering the problem of solid waste affecting the distant community of Izabal. 

With a previous survey in their survey mode, young volunteers contributed by re-digging data to know what kind of management is given to solid waste in each of the households in the community. 

With this first phase we obtained essential data to know how and how to deal with the problem of solid waste in the community and the measures to be taken to solve the problem. This project starts its execution phase in February. 

#KnowandLove

CALENDAR 2018

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We present the cover of our calendar of species 2018 that will soon be in our files shared on the website of Blue World Foundation.

 We keep what we love, we love what we know, we know what we have been taught. (Baba Dioum).

The calendar 2018 of Blue World Foundation seeks to disseminate the mission of the same in favor of the preservation of sharks. 

The people who use this calendar will be able to know some of the species that exist in the Caribbean of Guatemala, which are unique and have different biological characteristics, in their reproduction and feeding. In this way we will disseminate the importance of these majestic predators to the health of our oceans, because at this pace, many of these species are about to disappear. 

This calendar was made thanks to the effort of the graphic design student of the Universidad Rafael Landívar, Melisa Ortega. 

We also want to thank the photographers who allowed the use of their photographs, Alan C. Egan, Simon Rogerson, Alex St. Jean, Andy Murch, Eduardo Lopez Negrete and Discovery Communications.

WHY ARE OCEANS SO IMPORTANT?

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Oceans are the soul of the earth and of humanity. They occupy about three quarters of our planet and contain approximately 97% of the planet’s water. Oceans produce more than half of the oxygen by absorbing the carbon found in the atmosphere. 

No matter how far from the shore you live, the health of the oceans affects your life and the life of your family, friends, companions and all the humans who inhabit the Earth. 

The air you breathe, the water you drink, the food you eat, the products that keep you warm, safe, informed and entertaining, all come to you by being transported by the oceans of the world. 

About half of the world’s population lives within the coastal zone, and all ocean productivity-based businesses contribute more than $500 million in the world’s economy. Historically we wanted to adopt the idea that it is impossible to subtract all the renewable resource from the oceans or that it is impossible to fill the oceans of all the global waste, this idea is wrong because today you can notice the consequences of the Human unconsciousness. 

The total number of people using and depending on the ocean and the unsustainable practices that we have adopted have produced overexploitation of marine resources, significantly reducing biodiversity, degrading marine habitats and species in addition to us risking ecosystems from which the survival of humanity depends. 

Environmental awareness is a virtue that is developed and learned. 

Source:

http://www.protectplanetocean.org/collections/introduction/introbox/oceans/introduction-item.html